Total Knee Replacement
Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts. The knee is made up of the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap). The meniscus, the soft cartilage between the femur and tibia, serves as a cushion and helps absorb shock during motion. Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), injury, or other diseases of the joint can damage this protective layer of cartilage, causing extreme pain and difficulty in performing daily activities. Your doctor may recommend surgery if non-surgical treatment options have failed to relieve the symptoms.
Total knee replacement surgery is commonly indicated for severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of knee arthritis in which the joint cartilage gradually wears away. It often affects older people.
In a normal joint, articular cartilage allows for smooth movement within the joint, whereas in an arthritic knee the cartilage itself becomes thinner or completely absent. In addition, the bones become thicker around the edges of the joint and may form bony “spurs”. All of these factors can cause pain and restricted range of motion in the joint.
Your doctor may advise total knee replacement if you have:
- Severe knee pain which limits your daily activities (such as walking, getting up from a chair or climbing stairs).
- Moderate to severe pain that occurs during rest or awakens you at night.
- Chronic knee inflammation and swelling that is not relieved with rest or medications
- Failure to obtain pain relief from medications, injections, physical therapy, or other conservative treatments.
- A bow- legged knee deformity
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, however there are a number of factors that are commonly associated with the onset of arthritis and may include:
- Injury or trauma to the joint
- Fractures at the knee joint
- Increased body weight
- Repetitive overuse
- Joint infection
- Inflammation of the joint
- Connective tissue disorders
Your doctor will diagnose osteoarthritis based on the medical history, physical examination, and X-rays.
X-rays typically show a narrowing of the joint space in the arthritic knee.
The goal of total knee replacement surgery is to relieve pain and restore the alignment and function of your knee.
The surgery is performed under spinal or regional anesthesia when possible and indicated. Your surgeon will make an incision in the skin over the affected knee to expose the knee joint. Then the damaged portions of the femur bone are cut at appropriate angles using specialized jigs. The femoral component is attached to the end of the femur with or without bone cement. The surgeon then cuts or shaves the damaged area of the tibia (shinbone) and the cartilage. This removes the deformed part of the bone and any bony growths, as well as creates a smooth surface on which the implants can be attached. Next, the tibial component is secured to the end of the bone with bone cement or screws. Your surgeon will place a plastic piece called an articular surface between the implants to provide a smooth gliding surface for movement. This plastic insert will support the body’s weight and allow the femur to move over the tibia, similar to the original meniscus cartilage. The femur and the tibia with the new components are then put together to form the new knee joint. To make sure the patella (knee cap) glides smoothly over the new artificial knee, its rear surface is also prepared to receive a plastic component. With all the new components in place, the knee joint is tested through its range of motion. The entire joint is then irrigated and cleaned with a sterile solution. The incision is carefully closed, drains are inserted and a sterile dressing is placed over the incision.
Rehabilitation begins immediately following the surgery. A physical therapist will teach you specific exercises to strengthen your leg and restore knee movement. Knee immobilizers are used to stabilize the knee. You will be able to walk with crutches or a walker. A continuous passive motion (CPM) machine can be used to move the knee joint . Continuous passive motion is a device attached to the treated leg which constantly moves the joint through a controlled range of motion, while the patient relaxes. Your physical therapist will also provide you with a home exercise program to strengthen thigh and calf muscles.
Risks and complications
As with any major surgery, possible risks and complications associated with total knee replacement surgery include:
- Knee stiffness
- Blood clots (deep vein thrombosis)
- Nerve and blood vessel damage
- Ligament injuries
- Patella (kneecap) dislocation
- Plastic liner wears out
- Loosening of the implant
If you find difficulty in performing simple activities such as walking or climbing stairs because of your severe arthritic knee pain, then total knee replacement may be an option for you. It is a safe and effective procedure to relieve pain, correct leg deformity, and help you resume your normal activities of daily living
Cruciate Ligament (ACL/PCL) Sparing Knee Replacement
Knee replacement surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries to treat severe knee arthritis and injury. It involves the replacement of the damaged cartilage and bone with artificial implant(s) to restore the smooth movement of the joint. Although a very successful procedure, knee replacement requires sacrificing one of the two strong ligaments – the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL), which provide stability and strength to the knee joint. An advancement to the knee replacement surgery is the cruciate ligament sparing knee replacement, which retains these ligaments and allows patients to return to a more active lifestyle.
While performing a traditional knee replacement, the island of bone containing the two ligaments is removed to accommodate the prosthesis. The implants are comprised of three components:
- Round metal femur component, with a groove on the front, is inserted in the thighbone
- Metal and plastic shinbone component that is implanted into the shinbone
- Plastic kneecap prosthesis
To accommodate these implants the ligaments need to be cut in a traditional knee replacement. Although the implants are designed to take over the function of the cruciate ligaments, they do not function as efficiently as a normal ligament. If the ligaments are healthy and capable of functioning normally, they do not need to be removed. Cruciate ligament sparing knee replacement surgery uses implants that are shaped to protect the bone island while retaining the ligaments in their natural state.
The advantages of a cruciate retaining knee implant over a traditional total knee replacement procedure include:
- Less damage to the surrounding areas
- More natural movement
- Full joint stability
- Shorter hospital stay
- Faster recovery, and return to normal as well as extensive activities
- Improved range-of-motion
- Ligaments take away some strain from the artificial implants, extending its durability